Vannamei has many characteristics that are good such as: short time, high vitality, good disease resistance; However, farmers also need to pay attention to the conditions of farming to bring about the desired effect.
For shrimp farming to be effective, shrimp farms need to have a settling pond. The water is turbid, there are many suspended substances in the pond for a while to return in time, the organic matter decomposes, reducing the risk of infection. At this time the water treatment, disinfection will be more effective and cost-effective. The area of the settling pond accounts for about 30% of the total area of the farm. In the absence of settling ponds, shrimp farmers can use ponds as settling ponds. Water will be transferred to other ponds for sterilization and culture.
Aquaculture ponds are the central part of the system. Depending on the soil conditions, shrimp ponds may be in the form of ponds, lining or concrete. In places where the soil is infected with alum, it is difficult to keep water or farmers want to control, good collection of waste … the solution for lining the entire bottom and pond bottom is considered effective. If the soil is good or new ponds are made, it is usually only lined with canvas or concrete pond banks to avoid erosion, landslides caused by strong currents when the system is far from the water. Dredged pond bottom is the environment for microorganisms to develop, help to metabolize matter and stabilize the pond water environment better. However, when the shrimp culture is high, the amount of waste is high, pond bottom is an obstacle for cleaning and disposing of waste. Therefore, white shrimp farmers in the form of intensive farming generally lined the bottom and pond bottom. The area, shape, depth, drainage system and auxiliary equipment of the pond may vary between farms or farms, but basically the following five criteria must be met:
(1) Water retention, stabilization of culture environment
(2) grant, drainage easily with low cost
(3) minimize the risks of pests, diseases and natural disasters
(4) Provide enough oxygen and help disperse fast and even food, drugs, chemicals
(5) Advantages for collecting, eliminating waste completely.
All these criteria are important, but the farmer needs more attention than criteria number (4) and number (5). In order to provide enough oxygen and quickly distribute food, chemicals, lime and shrimp sterilizers, the shrimp farmer should use strong enough water fans, which are designed and installed to suit the actual conditions of the pond. pond, area and depth).
White shrimp pond size should be from 2,000 to 3,000 square meters, rectangular square or rectangular shape with a ratio of length: width of 3: 2. The depth of the pond allows to maintain the water level from 1.7 to 1.8 m. This size is convenient for the installation and operation of common water fans in the market, the pond environment is consistent and ensure sufficient oxygen dissolved. Large ponds that are too large or inappropriately shaped will cause difficulty in arranging the water supply system, collecting waste. Therefore, the living space of shrimps is shrinking, causing pollution and disease. In addition, the distribution of food, lime, microbial preparations, chemicals, drugs also difficult to achieve the desired effect. In order to facilitate the hygiene and efficiency, the ponds and pond bottom should be covered with canvas. New ponds have good soil, water can only cover the banks of ponds in the first 2-3 seasons. In order to ensure biosecurity, to prevent the entry of pathogens, the ponds need to have a bird net and a pathway to prevent the pathogen causing a 60 cm high pathogen, made of canvas or lattice running around the pond. Experience shows that barriers made of canvas are more effective, preventing rainwater from overflowing into the pond, limiting some of the bubbling from other ponds.
Newly constructed ponds are interested in the collection and disposal of waste. Water is usually supplied through a floating trough system or tarpaulin, connected to a reservoir or directly from a pumping station. Floating troughs in the sunlight are less likely to be infected and can be easily cleaned.